## Why is the Speed of Light a Constant? See for Yourself on this Page!

This model answers this question without mathematics. It shows the mechanism that underlies all the math and observations, so that you can see it, in action, with your own eyes! It also shows why the speed of light cannot be reached. This model is presented as a supplement to conventional theories.

This model asserts that every elementary particle of matter is traveling through at the speed of light in all directions relative to space. It is space that is moving relative to matter and light is an imprint on space that matter (a light source) has moved through. Space travels in two directions relative to a particle of matter: inward and outward. It can be mapped as a series of shrinking and expanding spheres. Motion between particles occurs when the spheres of one particle become offset from one another. The spheres of a particle being offset has no effect on the rate of change in their radii. The edge of a sphere always moves toward or away from its center at the speed of light. This is what keeps the speed of light constant.

A complete explanation of this model is given in a 15-minute presentation. Just follow one of the links at the bottom of the page. There is also a White Paper that provides more detail.

** Note:** A sine wave has been grafted onto some of the sphere maps on this page in order to represent light waves. These sine waves don't actually look like light might look in this model, but the sine wave represents frequency and wavelength -which is all we need.

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** Upper-Left:** Three light sources: one motionless and two in motion
relative to the observer.

Top, the light source (Yellow Dot) moves away from the observer (Red Dot).

Middle, both the observer and the light source are not in motion.

Bottom, the light source moves toward the targe.

In all three cases, the light wave passes the observer at the same velocity.

* Bottom Right:* At half the speed of light, there are twice as many dark blue sphere edges in the direction of motion than light blue edges (observer's velocity). As we move away from the observer in the opposite direction (to the left), the spheres of the observer become offset along with the spheres of the particle moving to the right. Yet, they must maintain their offset ratio relative to each other. Therefore, we can never reach the speed of light relative to the first particle.

__Time Dilation__

In the animations * below* we see the first and third waveforms from the animation above but, from two different frames of reference: the target's and light source's. This demonstrates how time changes with frame of reference. In the

*frame, it takes more time for the seven cycle waveform to pass the target as viewed from the light source than when viewed from the target. The change in distance from the light source out-weighs the change in length due to the Doppler effect.*

**top**

In the * bottom* frame, it takes more time for the seven cycle waveform to pass the target as viewed from the light source than when viewed from the target . The change due to the Doppler effect out weighs the change in distance from the light source.

To see the whole 15-minute presentation follow the links below: